Journal of Secondary Alternate Education

Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Homepage Reviews of and Comments About the Journal Volume 9, Number 1, Winter 2012 Volume 9, Number 2, April 2012 Volume 9, Number 3, May 2012 Volume 9, Number 4, June 2012 Volume 9, Number 5, July 2012 Volume 9, Number 6, August 2012 Volume 9, Number 7, September 2012 Volume 9, Number 8, October 2012 Volume 9, Number 9, November 2012 Volume 9, Number 10, December 2012 Volume 10, Number 1, January 2013 Volume 10, Number 2, February 2013 Volume 10, Number 3, March 2013 Volume 10, Number 4, April 2013 Volume 10, Number 5, May 2013 Volume 10, Number 6, June 2013 Volume 10, Number 7, July 2013 Volume 10, Number 8, August 2013 Volume 10, Number 9.0, September 2013 Volume 10, Number 9.1, September 2013 Volume 10, Number 10, October 2013 Volume 10, Number 11, November 2013 Volume 10, Number 12, December 2013 Volume 11, Number 1, January 2014 Volume 11, Number 2, February 2014 Volume 12, Number 1, December 2015 Volume 13, Number 1, January 2016 Volume 13, Number 2, February 2016 Volume 13, Number 3, March 2016 Volume 13, Number 4, April 2016 Volume 13, Number 5, May 2016 Volume 13, Number 6, June 2016 Volume 13, Number 7, July 2016 Volume 13, Number 8, August 2016 Volume 13, Number 9, September 2016 Volume 13, Number 10, October 2016 Volume 13, Number 11, November 2016 Volume 13, Number 12, December 2016 Volume 14, Number 1, January 2017 Volume 14, Number 2, February 2017 Volume 14, Number 3, March 2017 Volume 14, Number 4, April 2017 Volume 14, Number 5, May 2017 Volume 14, Number 6, June 2017 Volume 14, Number 7, July 2017 Volume 14, Number 8, August 2017 Volume 14, Number 9, September 2017 Volume 14, Number 10, October 2017 Volume 14, Number 11, November 2017 Volume 14, Number 12, December 2017 Volume 15, Number 1, January 2018 Volume 15, Number 2, February 2018 Volume 15, Number 3, March 2018 Volume 15, Number 4, April 2018 Volume 15, Number 5, May 2018 Volume 15, Number 6, June 2018 Volume 15, Number 7, July 2018 Volume 15, Number 8, August 2018 Volume 15, Number 9, September 2018 Volume 15, Number 10, October 2018


Copyright © 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 by the authors. Peer reviewed. Except for fair usage as defined by the American Psychological Association, no part of any article in the journal may be reproduced, transmitted in any form or through any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, or stored in a retrieval system, without written consent from the author.

Generally any published article will follow the author's format style and spelling. Payment: one contributor's copy. Copyright remains with the author.


Submissions: No unsolicited submissions, please.

Editor: Dan Lukiv


ISSN 1705-1940

Reviews of the journal:

"Thanks Dan for the issues. They look great and congratulations on your first sailing. I think you've found an important niche in the literature and that you are going to be very instrumental in bringing attention to this emerging area of importance."--Thomas Fleming, Professor of Education, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

"Keep up the good work. You are on the edge of something that is very important, first to the way we conceive of schooling and, more important, to the way we make programs and services available to youngsters."--Thomas Fleming

"I must congratulate [Lukiv] on an excellent journal."--Dorian Love, editor at ETONSA, South Africa

"it is clear that this...journal...has a lot of potential. the idea is a very good one."--james horner, editor at canadian content


Articles in each of the issues

Volume 1, Number 1, Autumn 2001

Alternative Education Models, by Helen Raptis and Thomas Fleming

Who Drops out of School and Why?, by Thomas Fleming and Yesman Post

Curriculum Enrichment with Computer Software, by Selma Wassermann

Motivation from a Humanistic Point of View, by Dan Lukiv

Volume 1, Number 2, Winter 2002:

Teaching Youth at Risk, by Helen Raptis and Thomas Fleming

Recapturing School Leavers, by Thomas Fleming and Karen Milburn

Standardized Testing, by Selma Wassermann

Direction for Secondary Alternate Teachers, by Dan Lukiv

Volume 1, Number 3, Spring 2002:

Vocational and Technical Training in Alternative Education, by Thomas Fleming and Yesman Post

An Interview With Alfie Kohn

Humanistic Career Counselling, by Dan Lukiv

Volume 1, Number 4, Summer 2002:

Teaching Aboriginal Youth: Literature Review, by Teresa Wilson and Thomas Fleming

Adolescents and Morality, by Marcie Hansen

CHALLENGER international: A Home-Grown Literary Journal, by Dan Lukiv

The Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Volume One (Autumn 2001 to Summer 2002). ISBN 0-9732116-2-8. ISSN 1705-1940. Published by LukivPress, Quesnel, BC. Copyright © 2002. Location in The Geoffrey R. Weller Library (The University of Northern British Columbia): LC46.8.B7 [Stacks]. Location in the McPherson Library (The University of Victoria, BC): LC46 J6 [Stacks]. Also located in the McNaughton Education Centre Library.

Volume 2, Number 1, Autumn 2002:

"Best Practises" in Teaching Aboriginal Children, by Teresa Wilson and Thomas Fleming

A Symposium on Aboriginal Education, by Dan Lukiv

Sex Education for Adolescents, by Marcie Hansen

Is There a Best Method?, by Dorian Love

Volume 2, Number 2, Winter 2003:

Why Students Drop out of School, by Siegfried Tilsner

Adolescent Development: Early and Late Maturation, by Marcie Hansen

A Career Counselling Symposium, by Dan Lukiv

Selected Bibliographies on Alternative Education, Youth At-Risk, Aboriginal Education, and "Best Practices" in Teaching Aboriginal Children, by Helen Raptis, Teresa Wilson, and Thomas Fleming

Volume 2, Number 3, Spring 2003:

Parental Inclusion Plan for Aboriginal Parents: Changes in Parents' Feelings, by Kelly Atkinson

Leadership Style, by Dan Lukiv

Drop-out Prevention and Recovery: An Inventory of Select Programs, by Thomas Fleming and Yesman Post

Volume 2, Number 4, Summer 2003:

An Examination of Aboriginal Students' Early School-Leaving Trends, by Wally McCappin

A Symposium on Unorthodoxy, by Dan Lukiv

The Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Volume Two (Autumn 2002 to Summer 2003). ISBN 1-894976-13-4. ISSN 1705-1940. Published by LukivPress, Quesnel, BC. Copyright © 2003. Location in the McPherson Library (The University of Victoria, BC): L46 J6 [Stacks]. Also located in the McNaughton Education Centre Library.

Volume 3, Number 1, Summer 2004:

Curriculum and Instruction Trends in British Columbia: Three Decades Through the Eyes of Teachers, by Diane Haynes

Intermediate Students' Attitudes Towards Recreational Reading and Choice of Free-Time Activities, by Wendy Forsythe

A Symposium on Phenomeological Research With Reference to Creative Writing, by Dan Lukiv

Why Students Drop out of School, by Sig Tilsner

Characteristics of Effective Instruction: Findings From the Literature on Mainstream, Special Needs and Minority Learners, by Helen Raptis and Thomas Fleming

Reframing Our vision: From Effective Schools to Effective School Systems, by Helen Raptis and Thomas Fleming

The Child Welfare League of America's Research to Practice Innitiatives' Annotated Bibliography

The Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Volume Three (Summer, 2004). ISBN 1-894976-21-5. ISSN 1705-1940. Published by LukivPress, Quesnel, BC. Copyright © 2004. Location in the McPherson Library (The University of Victoria, BC): L46 J6 [Stacks]. Also located in the McNaughton Education Centre Library.

Volume 4, Number 1, Summer 2005:

Preparing High School Freshman, by Don Schneider

Constant Frustration and Occasional Violence: The Legacy of American High Schools, by Alfie Kohn

A Socio-Emotional Program for the Language Arts, by Dan Lukiv

School-Wide Literacy, by Dan Lukiv

The Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Volume Four (Summer, 2005). ISBN 1-894976-22-3. ISSN 1705-1940. Published by LukivPress, Quesnel, BC. Copyright © 2005. Location in the McPherson Library (The University of Victoria, BC): L46 J6 [Stacks]. Also located in the McNaughton Education Centre Library.

Education Award: McNaughton Education Centre (where I teach [Quesnel, BC]), at the 2007 Learning in Action Convention: Engaging all Learners Through Alternative Education (Vancouver, BC), was awarded an "Oscar," as a school offering excellence and opportunity in education for troubled teens—sponsored by The BC Ministry of Education, The BC School Trustees Association, The BC Superintendents of Schools Association, and Xerox Canada.

Volume 5, Number 1, 2006-2008 (Summer) [contact the editor for an e-mail attachment of the issue]:

This special edition focuses on creativity in the classroom. Language of Art provides art teachers, especially inexperienced ones, with a teaching model with respect to "the elements of art, including line, color, shape, form, space, texture and value, and a marking rubric" (Laurie, Abstract). Direction for Creative Writing Teachers provides English and creative writing teachers with abundant direction about how to encourage some students to become adult writers.

I hope that this issue helps teachers inspire students to exercise their imaginations. When I read the wonderful poetry and stories and view the exciting art work of secondary alternate students at McNaughton Centre, where I teach, I’m reminded that education based on facts is seldom if ever as fascinating as education based on imaginative thought.

Language of Art, by Janet Laurie

Direction for Creative Writing Teachers, by Dan Lukiv.

The Journal of Secondary Alternate Education: Volume Five (Summer, 2008). ISSN 1705-1940. Published by LukivPress, Quesnel, BC. Copyright © 2008. Located in the McNaughton Education Centre Library.

New Direction: For a time, the journal will generally exist on a reference rather than a submission model. As the editor, I will refer to online articles (my contacting authors not implied) that readers interested in secondary alternate education will likely find interesting, informative, and thought provoking.

Volume 6, Number 1, Autumn 2008:

For anyone interested in a walk down secondary-alternate memory lane, J. B. Woudzia's MEd thesis provides a good read; also, Keaton Goulet's story of academic and personal success should provide a few warm fuzzies (written by Frank Peebles):

Student Perceptions and Program Organization in Secondary-Level Alternate Education, by John Bradley Woudzia:

"It Was Just Going Downhill and I Came Back Up," by Frank Peebles: [This link no longer works: Prince George Citizen now charges for Internet access to its Web pages. But the story, about a young man in the Prince George secondary alternate system, reflects much of the first videostream in the Volume 7, Number 2, Winter/Spring/Summer 2010 issue, in which Alisha Bojarowicz, a 17-year-old, defends the need for secondary alternate education.]

An English poetry resource (haiku and senryu): One More Year to Remember, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 6, Number 2, Winter 2009:

Recently, over 100 secondary alternate education schools/programs were the subjects of a descriptive study conducted by The University of Oregon. I found much of this research interesting; for example:

Traditional high school instructor to alternative education instructor: "How do you guys teach language arts over there?"

Alternative education person’s response: "We teach it the same ways you guys do. We start with the same benchmarks and curriculum goals defined by the high school. We teach Shakespeare just like you guys teach Shakespeare. What makes it alternative is how we deliver the curriculum and assess it."

The study: Programs and Practices for Special Education Students in Alternative Education Settings, by Deanne Unruh, Michael Bullis, Bonnie Todis, Miriam Waintrup, and Trent Atkins:

Many rearchers enjoy qualitative research because of the personal level of interaction they have with their subjects. I know I enjoyed conducting hermeneutic phenomenological studies into what, if any, school experiences had encouraged various established Canadian writers to take up creative writing seriously. My working with the studies' subjects, who helped me find valid and reliable themes that described their relevant experiences, provided excellent direction for creative writing teachers.

That said, I relate to Nancy L. Leech and Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie's comments in their paper entitled "Qualitative Research: A Framework to Enhance Understanding":

"Qualitative research has five main assumptions (ontological, epistemological, axiological, rhetorical, and methodological). Many qualitative researchers claim to agree with these assumptions and to use them throughout their research. For example, a researcher might be interested in understanding teachers’ views of standardized testing. After the question is formulated, the assumptions of qualitative research are considered: Does the researcher think that the teachers have multiple realities in regard to standardized testing [ontology]? Is the researcher willing to be part of the research [epistemology]? Does the researcher believe that research is value laden [axiology]? Will the researcher feel comfortable using informal language when writing about the study [rhetoric]? And, finally, is the best method for understanding this phenomenon an inductive method [methodology]? Creswell (2007) also stresses the importance of the researcher feeling personally comfortable with these choices."

I had to address each of these five areas in my research. I invite you to read about these, and other elements of qualitative studies, at:

An English literature resource: The Fringe, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 6, Number 3, Spring 2009:

Many of the issues faced by secondary alternate staff (teachers, counselors, social workers, youth care workers, administrators) find voice in this enormous study of 848 school districts with alternative programs and schools for at-risk students:

Kleiner, B., Porch, R., & Farris, E. (2002). Public Alternative Schools and Programs for Students At Risk of Education Failure: 2000–01 (NCES 2002–004). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Available at:

On page 28 of the study, the authors write:

"Student enrollment in the nation's public alternative schools and programs is highly fluid. Students are removed from regular schools on an individual and daily basis, for a variety of reasons. Some are removed for disruptive behavior, such as possession of weapons, fighting, disruptive verbal behavior, criminal activity, or the use or distribution of alcohol or drugs (Paglin and Fager 1997). Others are removed for other reasons that put them at risk of education failure, such as chronic truancy, continual academic failure, teen pregnancy/parenthood, or mental health problems.

"Similarly, students are returned to regular schools largely on an individual basis, for a variety of reasons. Many public alternative schools and programs aim to return at-risk students to regular schools as soon as they are prepared to do so. Some students do return to regular schools less "at risk," but many are sent back to or simply remain in (by choice or decree) an alternative school or program for the duration of their education (Quinn and Rutherford 1998). This [study] addresses questions relating to how students arrive at and exit from the [USA]'s public alternative schools and programs for at-risk students."

Naturally these schools and programs require the expertise to run them, and they require appropriate curriculum based on students' needs to drive courses. Page 36 explains:

"Whether at-risk students are able to transfer back to regular schools or successfully graduate from alternative schools and programs for students at risk of education failure may depend in part on the quality of the education and services they receive at their alternative schools and programs. Various factors have been identified as beneficial to at-risk students in alternative education environments, including dedicated and well-trained staff, effective curriculum, and a variety of support services provided in collaboration with an array of agencies (Quinn and Rutherford 1998)."

I hope you enjoy reading this study as much as I did.

For teachers of English and creative writing: An Introductory Creative Writing Program could be used by teachers at many levels. College and university instructors and professors could offer the course as 6 credits at the second-year level. Even high school English and creative writing teachers may find the work useful. For example, the British Columbia Ministry of Education endorses a Writing 12 (creative writing) course that covers much of what this program/course covers. I invite teachers to "let students loose" with the assignments, and to mark according to student ability and course expectation:

An Introductory Creative Writing Program, by Dan Lukiv:

An English poetry resource: At the Home, a collection, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 6, Number 4, Summer 2009:

Listen to Dr. John Ratey (clinical associate professor of psychiatry, Harvard Medical School) speak about how sustained aerobic exercise promotes learning and healthy brain function in students, especially troubled students in secondary alternate settings (see video clips and features):

The paper, "Teaching Speech Communication Using Physical Activity," by J. A. Aitken, also discusses the need for students to engage in exercise: "Typically, alternative schools fail to adequately support the physical activity needed by their students (Kubik, Lytle, & Fulkerson, 2004)" (Introduction, para. 2). Aitken adds that "Kovar, Combs, Campbell, Napper-Owen, and Worrell (2007) made a case for encouraging students to be more active because of national health concerns. They also suggested that physical movement stimulates brain activity to improve learning. In addition, as students develop physically, they can better develop mentally" (Rationale, para. 1).

Read the paper at:

An English poetry resource: The Wise Man, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 7, Number 1, Autumn 2009:

"The University of Minnesota received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Special Education Programs to conduct research on alternative schools across the country. Special emphasis was given to studying how and the extent to which students with disabilities are being served within these settings. The purpose of this information brief is to share responses of state directors of special education to a telephone interview about major issues regarding students with disabilities and alternative schools in their state" (Introduction).

Here are some enrollment issues addressed by the study that have manifested themselves at McNaughton Education Centre, the secondary alternate school that I teach at (you may find the same issues exist at your alternate school, assuming you work at one). For example,

1. Respondents expressed concern that students with disabilities may be pushed out of traditional schools and into alternative schools in a subtle or overt manner.

2. In some alternative schools, procedures may be in place ensuring a review of the IEP and implementation of services at a level similar to what the student received in the past. [But in] other alternative schools, the IEP may be rewritten to reflect more limited special education and related services—[in fact] oftentimes services are delivered on an indirect basis.

3. Some alternative school educators believe students who receive special education should not be served in alternative schools because they already have funding and a set of supports in place in the regular school setting—whereas students without disabilities who are at risk of school failure depend on the enrollment slots available at the alternative school. (Enrollment Issues, para. 1-3)

Read the study, Alternative Schools and Students With Disabilities:

Identifying and Understanding the Issues, by Camilla Lehr, at:

An English poetry resource: The Teacher, and other poems, by Dan Lukiv.

These (collected) articles on survival for the modern teacher have been published in a variety of international education magazines: The Master Teacher, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 7, Number 2, Winter/Spring/Summer 2010:

You might enjoy viewing these videos about secondary alternate students and schools.

Alisha Bojarowicz, a 17-year-old student at North Star, a program under the Serendipity Center, Inc. (Portland, OR), umbrella, speaks about her educational successes: North Star URL: Although North Star is privately run, its students "come" with funding from the school districts that referred them.

Octavia Subia, a former secondary alternate student, speaks at a PACT (People Acting in Community Together) meeting (with Santa Clara County Office of Education Trustees, March 18, 2008):

Andrew Lothschutz, counsellor at Vicksburg High School (Vicksburg, MI), speaks about secondary alternate education: His high school's URL:

Craig Ross, administrator at Portage Alternative School (Portage, MI), speaks about secondary alternative education: His school's URL:

Judge Richard Loftus, Santa Clara County Superior Court, speaks about the need for alternative schools:

March Buller, District Attorney, Santa Clara County, speaks about the need for alternative schools:

"John Tweten, PACT leader & retired educator, gives [a] research report at [a] PACT Community Action Meeting with Santa Clara County Office of Education Trustees, March 18, 2008":

The research paper, "Zero Tolerance Policies and Alternative Education: Where Do We Go from Here?," presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA, states

"Zero tolerance clearly dictates that a child found in violation of the policy will be expelled or excluded from school, [and] of the most common options utilized for students who are excluded from public schools [is]...alternative schooling....There are many types of alternative school programs that attempt to fit the wide-ranging needs of the diverse student population. This paper will discuss the development of zero tolerance policies, as well as the most common criticisms and effects of these rigid disciplinary codes and how they are implemented. Additionally, the evolution and current state of alternative schooling will also be discussed."

URL access to Janese Free's paper:

An English poetry resource: Book I: The Foundation, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 8, Number 1, Autumn 2010:

In the North American context, some sociologists say many educators teach students that define, psychologically, emotionally, and sociologically, a very particular cohort, sometimes called Millenials, individuals born from 1979 to 1998 (the start and end points remain sources of debate). Consider this CBC report about these Millenials:;photovideo

Educators may find direction about how to deal with Millenials, from a management point of view, very useful:

The following link explores debates about who actually belong to this generation (cohort). Debates aside, I appreciate this comment (final paragraph):

"Educators [need] to develop pedagogically appropriate teaching and learning strategies for their millennial students."

What practical direction for teachers of Millenials exists? Lots. Here are some examples:

An English poetry resource: The Lead Guitarist, by Dan Lukiv.

Volume 8, Number 2, Winter/Spring 2011:

Gen Xers. Are they on your staff? If yes, then you may want to read this:

Gen Xer parents. Do they need special attention? Consider this account:

Administrators, how do you juggle the needs of Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millenials on staff?

An English poetry resource: High in a Tree (haiku and senryu), by Dan Lukiv.

Another New Direction: I'm moving the journal to an online version available free of charge to the international community. I will acknowledge peer-reviewed published works with an editorial note.